January 18-19, 2002: James L. Jarrett

Lecture: When Jung published in 1920 the first edition of Psychological Types, he wrote in his Foreword: "This book is the fruit of twenty years’ work in the domain of practical psychology." This dating places the inception of the work near the beginning of his long career, and though later editions would include an Appendix of four short essays on the subject, they do not add to the original work. He had had his say on this complex topic, and was not influenced by a very large body of commentary on his theory.

The work has evoked a wide range of responses, including several attempts to develop tests by which a person can be "typed" as Introverted/Thinking/Sen- sation/Judging or Extroverted/Feeling/ Intuitive/Perceptive – and so on. ("Judging" and "Perceptive" were additions by Myers and Briggs to the original scheme.) These tests have introduced Jungian thought to a much larger public than has been reached by his other works, and devout Jungians have varied widely in their estimation of this part of his collective opus.

This lecture will focus upon negative aspects of each of the types, as Jung himself tended to do, asking the question: If one is, say, an Introverted Intuitive, what is the price one must pay for this fate? Hence: Ways of Being Inferior.

Workshop: After a quick review of the essentials of Jung’s typology, we will look at his emphasis upon the opposites and his insistence upon the inevitability of our strongest function being directly opposed to our weakest function. This workshop will be a getting down to "cases," both Dr. Jarrett’s and those of participants, confessing to those more interesting but somewhat regrettable traits in ourselves and others, in order to see whether these traits can be accommodated within the Jungian personality theory.


James L. Jarrett, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Philosophy of Education at the University of California, Berkeley, began his teaching career in Utah as a high school English teacher. In addition to his long tenure at U.C. Berkeley, he also taught at Columbia University, Colorado College, and Western Washington College (now University), where he served as president for five years. On Fulbright and other leaves he taught briefly in Rio de Janeiro and Montevideo. He received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from the University of Utah and completed his Ph.D. at the University of Michigan, always concentrating on philosophy with particular attention paid to aesthetics.

His publications include Language and Informal Logic, The Humanities and Humanistic EducationThe Quest for Beauty, and The Teaching of Values: Caring and Appreciation. For the last forty years he has published many works in Jungian journals and lectured on Jungian topics in cities across the United States, including Little Rock (his birthplace), and often in London and Küsnacht-Zürich. He recently edited both the two-volume and abridged versions of Jung’s seminar on Nietzsche’s ZARATHUSTRA for Princeton University Press.

Ways of Being Inferior